Protoceratium Reticulatum Classification Essay

Publication details
Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli 1885: 1007, pl. 52: fig. 2

Published in: Bütschli, O. (1885). II. Abtheilung: Mastigophora. In: Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Ester Band Protozoa. ( Eds), pp. 865-1088. Leipzig & Heidelberg: C.F. Winter'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Protoceratium is Protoceratiumaceros Bergh.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Peridinium reticulatum Claparède & Lachmann

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), reticulate, netted, marked with a network (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Peridiniopsis reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Starmach
Peridinium reticulatum Claparède & Lachmann 1859

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax grindleyi Reinecke 1967

Usage notes
Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Peridiniopsisreticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Starmach)
Europe: Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012).

(as Protoceratiumreticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Pierangelini et al. 2017), Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Black Sea (Goméz & Boicenco 2004, BSPC Editorial Board 2014), Helgoland (Hoppenrath 2004), Mediterranean (Gómez 2003), Netherlands (Veen et al. 2015), Romania (Caraus 2017), Sweden (Lundholm et al. 2011).

Atlantic Islands: Atlantic Ocean (Bogus et al. 2014), Madeira (Kaufmann, Santos & Maranhão 2015).

North America: Mexico (Caribbean) (Merino-Virgilio et al. 2013).

South America: Brazil (Odebrecht 2010), Chile (Alves-de-Souza, Varela, Navarrete, Fernández & Leal 2008).

Africa: Mauritania (Zonneveld et al. 2010).

South-west Asia: Turkey (Asia) (Balkis et al. 2016).

Asia: China (Liu 2008).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (McCarthy 2013), New Zealand (Chang et al. 2012).

(as Gonyaulaxgrindleyi Reinecke)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Vilicic, Marasovic & Miokovic 2002), Black Sea (BSPC Editorial Board 2014), Britain (Parke & Dixon 1976, Dodge 1981), Portugal (Moita & Vilarinho 1999), Turkey (Europe) (Balkis 2004).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014).

North America: Nova Scotia (Kim, Garbary & McLachlan 2004).

Asia: Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Chang et al. 2012).

Key references
Balkis, N., Balci, M., Giannakourou, A., Venetsanopolou, A. & Mudie, P. (2016). Dinoflagellate resting cysts in recent marine sediments from the Gulf of Gemlik (Marmara Sea, Turkey) and seasonal harmful algal blooms. Phycologia 55(2): 187-209.

Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Hansen, G., Moestrup, O. & Roberts, K.R. (1997). Light and electron microscopical observations on Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 147: 381-391.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Liu, L. & Hastings, J.W. (2006). Novel and rapidly diverging intergenic sequences between tandem repeats of the luciferase genes in seven dinoflagellate species. Journal of Phycology 42: 96-103.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 22 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3691 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Braarud, T. (1945). Morphological observations on marine dinoflagellate cultures (Porella perforata, Gonyaulax tamarensis, Protoceratium reticulatum). Avhandlinger Norske videnskaps-akademi, matematisk-naturvidenskapelig klasse 1945(11): 1-18.
Hansen, G., Moestrup, O. & Roberts, K.R. (1997). Light and electron microscopical observations on Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 147: 381-391.
Hernandez-Becerril, D.U., Rodríguez-Palacio, C. & Lozano-Ramírez, C. (2010). Morphology of two bloom-forming or potentially toxic marine dinoflagellates from the Mexican Pacific, Heterocapsa pygmaea and Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 245-254.
Mertens, K.N., Carbonell-Moore, M.C., Pospelova, V., Head, M.J., Highfield, A., Schroeder, D., Gu, H., Andree, K.B., Fernández, M., Yamaguchi, A., Takano, Y., Matsuoka, K., Nézan, E., Bilien, G., Okolodkov, Y., Koike, K., Hoppenrath, M., Pfaff, M., Pitcher, G., Al-Muftah, A., Rochon, A., Lim, P.T., Leaw, C.P., Lim, Z.F. & Ellegaard, M. (2017). Pentaplacodinium saltonense gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) and its relationship to the cyst-defined genus Operculodinium and yessotoxin-producing Protoceratium reticulatum. Harmful Algae 71: 57-77, 7 text-fig., 7 pl., 1 table.
Paz, P., Blanco, J. & Franco, J.M. (2013). Yessotoxins production during the culture of Protoceratium reticulatum strains isolated from Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain). Harmful Algae 21: 13-19.
Pierangelini, M., Raven, J.A. & Giordano, M. (2017). The relative availability of inorganic carbon and inorganic nitrogen influences the response of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum to elevated CO2. Journal of Phycology 53(2): 298-307.
Ratti, S., Giordano, M & Morse, D. (2007). CO2-concentrating mechanisms of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae, Gonyaulacales). Journal of Phycology 43: 693-701.
Salgado, P., Fraga, S., Rodríguez, F. & Riobó, P. (2017 '2018'). Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales), a new dinoflagellate species previously reported as Protoceratium reticulatum. Journal of Phycology in press: .

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 March 2018.

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